Remembering Mary Manko Haskett, last surviving internee

From our archives:

"The death of Mary Manko: Righting a historical injustice," by Lubomyr Luciuk, 1
August 2007, The Kingston Whig-Standard

We buried her under a maple. Seeing Mary’s grave sheltered by a tree whose
leaf symbolizes our country was comforting. Nearby stands a spruce. That
evergreen would have reminded her of the boreal forest she knew as a young
girl. Even though she was born in Montreal, Mary was branded an “enemy
alien” and transported north to the Spirit Lake concentration camp, along
with the rest of the Manko family. Thousands of Ukrainians and other Europeans
like them were jailed, not because of anything they had done, but only because
of where they had come from, who they were. What little wealth they had was
taken, and they were forced to do hard labour for the profit of their jailers. 
The Mankos lost something even more precious, their youngest daughter, Nellie,
who died there. 

Mary Manko Haskett passed away 14 July, the last known survivor of Canada’s
first national internment operations. She was 98. For years she lent her
support to the Ukrainian Canadian community’s campaign to secure a timely and
honourable redress settlement. Disappointingly, she did not live to see that
happen, despite the Honourable Stephen Harper’s own words. On 24 March 2005
he rose in the House of Commons to support fellow Conservative Inky Mark’s
Bill C 331 – The Ukrainian Canadian Restitution Act, saying: “Mary Haskett,
is still alive…. I sincerely hope that she will live to see an official
reconciliation of this past injustice.” The Prime Minister might now ask the
bureaucracy why his wish was ignored. 

The government did, at least, send a representative to Mary’s funeral,
Conservative MP Mike Wallace, (Burlington) who read a prepared statement,
subsequently added to the website of the Secretary of State for
Multiculturalism, Jason Kenney: “ We were saddened to hear of the death of
Mrs. Mary Manko Haskett, the last known survivor of Canadian internment camps
during the First World War and the postwar period. On behalf of Canada's New
Government, I would like to extend my condolences to Mrs. Haskett's family, as
well as the Ukrainian-Canadian community. Born and raised in Montreal, Mary was
six years old when she and her family were detained in the Spirit Lake
internment camp. Despite advice from British officials that ‘friendly
aliens’ should not be interned, Ottawa invoked The War Measures Act to detain
8,579 ‘enemy aliens’ including Poles, Italians, Bulgarians, Croats, Turks,
Serbs, Hungarians, Russians, Jews, and Romanians - but the majority (perhaps as
many as 5,000) were of Ukrainian origin. Many were unwilling subjects of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and thus not ‘enemy aliens’ at all. For years. Mrs
Haskett and others argued that ‘Canada's first internment operations’
herded together individuals based on nationality - many of them Canadian-born -
and compelled them into forced labour. Despite the original wartime
justification for these measures, many were kept in custody for two years after
the Armistice of 1918. We are all grateful for Mrs. Manko Haskett's dedication
to the cause of remembering and commemorating this important event in Canada's

Official condolences for those recently deceased, for example Bluma Appel and Ed
Mirvish, can be found on the Canadian Heritage website. The innocuous text cited
above wasn’t included, however, being deemed “too political.” And so yet
another indignity was heaped upon Mary, posthumously. Remembering her means
recalling what was done to her and by whom. That’s a no-no. While this gaffe
may be corrected, even if Mary wasn’t rich or a patron of the arts, it’s
too late. We got the message. 

Years ago Mary provided a prescription for the redress campaign. She insisted we
should never demand an apology, or compensation for survivors, or their
descendants. Instead we should ask, politely, for recognition and the
restitution of what was taken under duress. Those funds, to be held in a
community-based endowment, would underwrite commemorative and educational
projects that, hopefully, will ensure no other ethnic, religious or racial
minority suffers as Ukrainian Canadians once did. 

While no survivors remain, and even their descendants are senior citizens, a new
generation of Canadians of Ukrainian heritage took up Mary’s cause nearly two
decades ago, even though none of us had any ties to the victims. That changed
on the day of Mary’s funeral, when my mother and sister returned from western
Ukraine. They knew about Mary but, being away, did not know she had died. They
brought the news that my cousin, Lesia, had married Ivan Manko, himself
distantly related to Mary’s parents, Katherine and Andrew, whose graves are
found in Mississsauga’s St. Christopher’s Catholic cemetery, not far from
Mary’s mound. 

This crusade was always about righting an historical injustice and, in that
sense, is political. It just got personal too. 
Dr. Lubomyr Luciuk is director of research for the Ukrainian Canadian Civil
Liberties Association (

UCCLA to question inclusiveness of federal museum, memorial, and presence of KGB in Canada

Annual conclave participants map out the year ahead and take time to reflect on accomplishments

For immediate release (Ottawa): October 21, 2014

Meeting in conclave in Banff, Alta., on Oct. 19, members of the executive of the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association (UCCLA) discussed a wide range of projects it recently completed or will be moving forward with in the year ahead. After first noting the successes of Project CTO, which saw the simultaneous unveiling of 115 plaques across Canada recalling the internment operations of 1914-1920, the group noted the opening of the “Enemy Aliens” exhibit the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation (UCCLF) helped curate at the Canadian War Museum. This exhibit will, it is hoped, travel to a number of cities across Canada during the next several years, bringing further attention to the experience of Ukrainians and other Europeans unjustly imprisoned and forced to do heavy labour for the profit of their jailers during Canada’s first national internment operations.

The group also discussed steps that UCCLA needs to take to remove veterans of the KGB from Canada, proposed new fellowships providing support for students and others involved in the arts and legal fields, and began deliberations on hosting an international symposium regarding Winnipeg’s Canadian Museum for Human Rights controversy. Concerns about the lack of inclusiveness in hallowing the memory of all of the victims of Nazism at the Canadian national Holocaust memorial in Ottawa were also raised.

While in Banff, several members of UCCLA participated in a conference, “The Great War, Canada and the Internment of Enemy Aliens, 1914-1920,” sponsored by the Wirth Centre for Austrian and Central European Studies and the Canadian Institute for Ukrainian Studies. Members also visited the new Parks Canada exhibit dealing with the internment operations at the Cave and Basin site, in Banff National Park, ending their conclave by agreeing to hold next year’s meeting in the Maritimes.

UCCLA’s chairman, Roman Zakaluzny, said: “We continue to be a project-driven and all-volunteer group, that has time and again demonstrated an ability to sustain initiatives we believe raise the profile of our community, nationally and internationally. We are looking forward in the next few years to working with several national museums not only to recall the internment operations and War Measures Act, but to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Cpl. Filip Konowal’s valour at the Battle of Hill 70, not only in Canada but in France, the UK, and Ukraine.

“Over the next 12 months in which Canadians will, of course, vote in a federal election, we shall continue to insist that all of the exhibits in the taxpayer-funded Canadian Museum for Human Rights be revised so that they become comparative, thematic, and inclusive. We plan to help stage a major international conference on why that is both appropriate and essential if this national museum is to have genuine pedagogical importance. Finally, we remain committed to ensuring that no veterans of the Soviet secret police remain in this country – the fact that some do, to this day, is a travesty of justice and an affront to the memory of the many millions who fell victim to Communism as well as their descendants, of whom millions live in Canada.”

The Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association (L'Association ukrainienne-canadienne des droits civils) is a non-partisan, voluntary, non-profit research and educational organization committed to the articulation and promotion of the Ukrainian Canadian community's interests and to the defence of the civil liberties and human rights of Ukrainians in Canada and elsewhere.
Station A, P.O. 100, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 8V1

Enemy Aliens Exhibit opens at the Canadian War Museum

Opening the Enemy Aliens exhibit, 2 Oct 2014, Canadian War Museum

Kim Pawliw, internee descendant, cuts the ribbon opening the ‘Enemy Aliens’ exhibit at the Canadian War Museum, 2 October 2014 –

Left to Right: Dr L Luciuk (UCCLA), Mark O’Neill (CEO, Canadian Museum of History), Ambassador of Ukraine Vadym Prystaiko, Kim Pawliw, Rev Dr Petro Galadza, Jim Whitham (CEO, Canadian War Museum) and Dr John Maker CWM).

Photo Credit: Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation

Ukrainian Weekly, 31 August 2014

The CTO project
Something extraordinary happened in Canada on Monday, August 22. On that day, progressing from east to west, at exactly 11 a.m. local time, 100 plaques were unveiled in various public venues – from Amherst, Nova Scotia, to Nanaimo, British Columbia (both sites of first world war-era internment camps) – to mark the 100th anniversary of Canada’s first national internment operations of 1914-1920 and the 100th anniversary of the War Measures Act.
Called Project “CTO,” this “wave of remembrance,” as the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation described it, recalled the heinous government operation that labeled more than 80,000 immigrants to Canada as “enemy aliens” and interned some 8,500 in 24 camps throughout the country. Why were they considered “enemy aliens”? Simply because of where they came from and, therefore, the twisted thinking went, could be suspected of allegiance with the enemy. There was no evidence, no due process afforded these immigrants. The majority were Ukrainians who hailed from the Austro-Hungarian crownlands of Halychyna and Bukovyna. Others were of German, Hungarian, Serbian, Croatian and Armenian descent.
The project to commemorate the internment operations and its victims – the brainchild of Dr. Lubomyr Luciuk, professor of political geography at the Royal Military College of Canada – aims to educate the people of Canada about a little-known episode of their history. Indeed, as Dr. Luciuk, who heads the CTO project, told The Weekly in an interview published on August 17, he himself first learned of the internment operations in 1978, while doing research for his master’s degree. Many of the internees’ family members were not even aware of the grave injustice done to their kin. Not odd, given that the Canadian government at first denied that such operations had taken place.
Dr. Luciuk went on to write a book about those operations, and the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association, of which he is a leading member, pressed the campaign for recognition and redress for this historic wrong. It took many years of effort, but the campaign finally succeeded with the establishment in 2008 of the Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund, which was endowed with $10 million from the federal government. But it was never about money or compensation to those once tarred as “enemy aliens” and their families – only about memory. Mary Manko Haskett, one of the victims, underscored that all she wanted was for Canadians to remember what had happened. “Remember. Learn. Never forget them…” – that’s the theme of the CTO project.
In Toronto alone, home to a huge Ukrainian community, there are 10 venues where the bilingual – English and French – plaques were unveiled on August 22. One of them, as correspondent Oksana Zakydalsky reports, was installed in the headquarters of the city’s branch of Plast Ukrainian Scouting Organization. Thanks to the CTO project, new generations of Canadians throughout the land will be informed and will perpetuate the memory of those who came before them.
Also on August 22, Prime Minister Stephen Harper released a statement “in remembrance of those interned in Canada during the first world war,” which read, in part: “Governments have a solemn duty to defend against legitimate threats in wartime, but we look back with deep regret on an unjust policy that was implemented indiscriminately as a form of collective punishment and in violation of fundamental principles of natural justice, including the presumption of innocence. In Canada we acknowledge the mistakes of the past, and we learn from them. We are also steadfast in our commitment to remembering those who suffered. …let us also remember to celebrate the achievements of the internees and their descendants, who overcame this hardship and contributed so much to the building of our country as loyal and dedicated citizens.”