Category Archives: News

UCCLF: Canada’s First World War Internment Operations Remembered in Ukraine


For Immediate Release – 27 October 2015

The first-ever bilingual historical marker recalling Canada’s first national internment operations of 1914-1920 will be unveiled at the Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ (vul. Mykilsko Slobidska 5) on Wednesday, 28 October 2015 at 11 am (local time). It is expected that His Beatitude, Sviatoslav, Patriarch of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, will be participating in this event, organized by the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation with the assistance of the Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund.

Commenting, UCCLF’s chairman, Andrew Harasymiw, said:

“We are very pleased to have the people of Ukraine join us in remembering this episode in Ukrainian Canadian history, when thousands of Ukrainians and other Europeans were needlessly imprisoned, forced to do heavy labour for the profit of the jailers, disenfranchised, and subjected to other state censures, not because of any wrong they had done but only because of where they had come from, who they were. When His Beatitude visited Canada a few years ago, he paid a special visit to the internment campsites in Banff National Park, demonstrating his personal interest in hallowing the memory of all of the internees. With his co-operation we are now unveiling a marker in Ukraine’s capital city, recalling what was once an almost forgotten story both in Canada and in Ukraine.”

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For media coverage please contact Rev. Ihor Yaciv, head of press office, (mobile – 00380506648184),

For organizational issues please contact Rev. Nikanor Loik (00380974428874)

For more information on UCCLF, please visit

Victims of Internment Camps honoured

Darren Handschuh  Oct 25, 2015 / 4:17 pm | S

A dark part of Vernon’s history will be remembered half a world away this week.

On Wednesday, a bilingual (Ukrainian/English) plaque will be unveiled in Kyiv at the Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral of the Resurrected Christ, recalling Canada’s first national internment operations of 1914-1920.

During the Great War, thousands of Ukrainians and other Europeans were imprisoned as “enemy aliens,” not because of any wrong they had done but only because of who they were, where they had come from.

In 2008, after years of community effort spearheaded by the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association the Government of Canada provided support for the creation of the Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund tasked with developing commemorative and educational projects recalling this little-known episode in Canadian history.

An interment camp was opened in Vernon in September, 1914 to house the so called enemy aliens. The camp, located in what is now MacDonald Park next to WL Seaton Secondary School, housed hundreds of people.

Eleven men died while at the camp.

The Vernon camp was one of 24 across the nation that confined thousands of people between 1914 and 1920.

This is what happened to our people

‘This is what happened to our people’


Stella Kosick Sloan, holding a book written by her sister, wants to spread word about the little-known internment of thousands of Ukrainians in Canada during the First World War. - Boaz Joseph / The Leader

Stella Kosick Sloan, holding a book written by her sister, wants to spread word about the little-known internment of thousands of Ukrainians in Canada during the First World War.

— image credit: Boaz Joseph / The Leader

One event in this story took place aboard a train a year after the war started.

A 23-year-old man was being secreted away for work. His people were being persecuted, and he had to keep his head down.

If the authorities about to board his train at a station found him and saw his identification papers, he would certainly be taken to what was already being called a concentration camp.

His travel mates, who had proper documents, saw what was about to happen.

Quickly, they threw a pile of clothing and baggage on top of him, saving him from captivity behind barbed wire.

He would have one other close call during the war, but managed to evade capture.

This didn’t happen in Europe and it wasn’t the Second World War.

It was in Edmonton in 1915, on a train from Saskatchewan that was headed for the Peace River Region.

The 23-year-old was Fred Kosyk (born in 1892), who was to become Fred Kocuk, and then finally Kosick – such was the fate of a man always on the move to avoid the internment that thousands of Ukrainians experienced in Canada during the First World War.

Photo: Fred Kosick with his wife Katherine in a photo taken between 1920 and 1939.

Kosick immigrated in 1910, during the second decade of federally planned Ukrainian immigration.

For several years, Canadian officials, running short of English-speaking immigrants interested in living in the Prairies, lured Ukrainians with promises of free land, gold-lined streets and an escape from the oppression they experienced by authorities at home in Central and Eastern Europe.

Instead, they found themselves pioneers breaking a harsh land under a callous bureaucracy.

Years later, out of economic necessity, many would become migratory workers rather than farmers.

Ukrainians were described by Minister of the Interior Clifford Sifton (1895-1905) as “stalwart peasants in sheepskin coats” – not a term of endearment – who were sturdy enough for the dangerous and backbreaking pioneering that was necessary in places such as Mayfair, Saskatchewan, about 140 kilometres northwest of Saskatoon, where Kosick first began to build a homestead.

Four years later, married to Katherine Hancheryk and with his first kids, he was on the run, as Canada joined Great Britain in The Great War against the Central Powers, which included Austria-Hungary.

Under the War Measures Act, 80,000 Ukrainians (sometimes known as Galecians, Ruthenians, Bukovynians and Russians) in Canada were deemed enemy aliens; they were registered, closely monitored, and at a minimum, ordered to report to local officials on a regular basis.

They were under suspicion because being from Ruthenia or Bukovyna meant holding an Austrian passport, and Austria was at war against Russia, Britain’s ally.

At the time, Ukraine was not independent, and its people were spread out along the border of Russia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which included parts of present-day Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia, The Czech Republic, Romania and the former Yugoslavia.

To Canadian officials, one “sheepskin coat” was another.

Some didn’t realize that their lack of English skills landed them in trouble by confusing “proty” (“against” in Ukrainian) with the English word “pro” when asked if they were pro-German.

An estimated 8,500 citizens of Austria-Hungary, including about 5,000 Ukrainians, were interned in 24 camps throughout Canada, including eight in British Columbia: Nanaimo, Revelstoke, Fernie/Morrissey, Field, Edgewood, Monashee, Mara Lake and the largest, Vernon.

Whereas Germans were deemed more of a threat and held in urban areas where they could be watched more diligently, Ukrainians considered a high risk (about one in 10, including some women and children) were sent to remote areas, made to build their own fencing and lodging, and then work in lumber camps and coal mines and forced to clear land and build railroads.

Working in primitive conditions, they were paid 25 cents per day (a dollar less than soldiers) and worked six days a week. They were sometimes mistreated by guards.

Banff, AB, with many of its tourist spots (including the Banff Springs Hotel) built by Ukrainian hands in almost slave-like conditions, was among the worst places of abuse.

The internment camps in Vernon, and Kapuskasing, in Northern Ontario, were not closed until 1920, about 16 months after the war ended.

After the war, much of the property that was taken by the Canadian government was not returned and many documents were destroyed in the years to follow.

According to the Ukrainian Civil Liberties Association, PricewaterhouseCoopers has estimated that confiscated possessions, auctioned off by the Canadian government at the end of the First World War, would now be worth $33-35 million.

Fred Kosick never got his land back, and his daughter, 77-year-old daughter Stella Kosick Sloan, who lives in Surrey, still has questions about what happened and hasn’t found many records of his property.

She knows that he managed to avoid internment during the war, but not much more than the generalities – and stories pieced together by her sister Mary Kosick Goodwin, who wrote a book about the subject.

(Mary Kosick Goodwin, 92 and living in Nanaimo, was unavailable for an interview for this story).

Photo: The family gathers for the Kosicks’ 60th anniversary in 1975. Fred and Katherine are in the front row, third and fourth from left.

Fred, who died in 1977, never spoke to his family about his past.

“It was a closed chapter of a book to him,” says Stella.

Her memories of growing up involved regular family life – with nine siblings – in Saskatchewan in the 1930s and ’40s: The local churches, the singing, the dancing, the plays, the walks of two to five miles to school in 30-40 below-zero temperatures.

Her family has photos going back decades posted at

Today, few Canadians are aware of the internment – which happened more than two decades before the more famous incarceration of Japanese-Canadians during the Second World War.

“There’s a whole layer of hidden stories – attic memories of Ukrainians, and other Canadians who suffered the indignity of being called enemy aliens,” says Dr. Lubomyr Luciuk, professor of political geography at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ont.

“It’s a pretty traumatic experience to be interned or branded… it raises questions about citizenship, loyalty and identity.”

Many of the victims’ family members – and a handful of survivors – have told him over they years how Ukrainians in Canada at the time were abused, shaken down for money and forced to report to authorities at regular intervals.

Luciuk, who led a campaign for the federal government to acknowledge its past starting in the mid-1980s, says there was no formal redress until 2008, when the Harper government set up a $10-million Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund to support projects commemorating the experience of the thousands of Ukrainians and other Europeans interned between 1914 and 1920, and others who suffered a suspension of their civil liberties.

Even during his redress and public education campaign, some Ukrainians told Luciuk that he might stir up trouble by bringing up the subject – so long-lasting was their embarrassment and fear.

But it’s a story – a history – which Stella Kosick continues to investigate and to share with others.

“This is what happened to our people,” she says. “It’s been a hundred years.”

Remembering Mary Manko Haskett, last surviving internee

From our archives:

"The death of Mary Manko: Righting a historical injustice," by Lubomyr Luciuk, 1
August 2007, The Kingston Whig-Standard

We buried her under a maple. Seeing Mary’s grave sheltered by a tree whose
leaf symbolizes our country was comforting. Nearby stands a spruce. That
evergreen would have reminded her of the boreal forest she knew as a young
girl. Even though she was born in Montreal, Mary was branded an “enemy
alien” and transported north to the Spirit Lake concentration camp, along
with the rest of the Manko family. Thousands of Ukrainians and other Europeans
like them were jailed, not because of anything they had done, but only because
of where they had come from, who they were. What little wealth they had was
taken, and they were forced to do hard labour for the profit of their jailers. 
The Mankos lost something even more precious, their youngest daughter, Nellie,
who died there. 

Mary Manko Haskett passed away 14 July, the last known survivor of Canada’s
first national internment operations. She was 98. For years she lent her
support to the Ukrainian Canadian community’s campaign to secure a timely and
honourable redress settlement. Disappointingly, she did not live to see that
happen, despite the Honourable Stephen Harper’s own words. On 24 March 2005
he rose in the House of Commons to support fellow Conservative Inky Mark’s
Bill C 331 – The Ukrainian Canadian Restitution Act, saying: “Mary Haskett,
is still alive…. I sincerely hope that she will live to see an official
reconciliation of this past injustice.” The Prime Minister might now ask the
bureaucracy why his wish was ignored. 

The government did, at least, send a representative to Mary’s funeral,
Conservative MP Mike Wallace, (Burlington) who read a prepared statement,
subsequently added to the website of the Secretary of State for
Multiculturalism, Jason Kenney: “ We were saddened to hear of the death of
Mrs. Mary Manko Haskett, the last known survivor of Canadian internment camps
during the First World War and the postwar period. On behalf of Canada's New
Government, I would like to extend my condolences to Mrs. Haskett's family, as
well as the Ukrainian-Canadian community. Born and raised in Montreal, Mary was
six years old when she and her family were detained in the Spirit Lake
internment camp. Despite advice from British officials that ‘friendly
aliens’ should not be interned, Ottawa invoked The War Measures Act to detain
8,579 ‘enemy aliens’ including Poles, Italians, Bulgarians, Croats, Turks,
Serbs, Hungarians, Russians, Jews, and Romanians - but the majority (perhaps as
many as 5,000) were of Ukrainian origin. Many were unwilling subjects of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and thus not ‘enemy aliens’ at all. For years. Mrs
Haskett and others argued that ‘Canada's first internment operations’
herded together individuals based on nationality - many of them Canadian-born -
and compelled them into forced labour. Despite the original wartime
justification for these measures, many were kept in custody for two years after
the Armistice of 1918. We are all grateful for Mrs. Manko Haskett's dedication
to the cause of remembering and commemorating this important event in Canada's

Official condolences for those recently deceased, for example Bluma Appel and Ed
Mirvish, can be found on the Canadian Heritage website. The innocuous text cited
above wasn’t included, however, being deemed “too political.” And so yet
another indignity was heaped upon Mary, posthumously. Remembering her means
recalling what was done to her and by whom. That’s a no-no. While this gaffe
may be corrected, even if Mary wasn’t rich or a patron of the arts, it’s
too late. We got the message. 

Years ago Mary provided a prescription for the redress campaign. She insisted we
should never demand an apology, or compensation for survivors, or their
descendants. Instead we should ask, politely, for recognition and the
restitution of what was taken under duress. Those funds, to be held in a
community-based endowment, would underwrite commemorative and educational
projects that, hopefully, will ensure no other ethnic, religious or racial
minority suffers as Ukrainian Canadians once did. 

While no survivors remain, and even their descendants are senior citizens, a new
generation of Canadians of Ukrainian heritage took up Mary’s cause nearly two
decades ago, even though none of us had any ties to the victims. That changed
on the day of Mary’s funeral, when my mother and sister returned from western
Ukraine. They knew about Mary but, being away, did not know she had died. They
brought the news that my cousin, Lesia, had married Ivan Manko, himself
distantly related to Mary’s parents, Katherine and Andrew, whose graves are
found in Mississsauga’s St. Christopher’s Catholic cemetery, not far from
Mary’s mound. 

This crusade was always about righting an historical injustice and, in that
sense, is political. It just got personal too. 
Dr. Lubomyr Luciuk is director of research for the Ukrainian Canadian Civil
Liberties Association (

UCCLA to question inclusiveness of federal museum, memorial, and presence of KGB in Canada

Annual conclave participants map out the year ahead and take time to reflect on accomplishments

For immediate release (Ottawa): October 21, 2014

Meeting in conclave in Banff, Alta., on Oct. 19, members of the executive of the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association (UCCLA) discussed a wide range of projects it recently completed or will be moving forward with in the year ahead. After first noting the successes of Project CTO, which saw the simultaneous unveiling of 115 plaques across Canada recalling the internment operations of 1914-1920, the group noted the opening of the “Enemy Aliens” exhibit the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation (UCCLF) helped curate at the Canadian War Museum. This exhibit will, it is hoped, travel to a number of cities across Canada during the next several years, bringing further attention to the experience of Ukrainians and other Europeans unjustly imprisoned and forced to do heavy labour for the profit of their jailers during Canada’s first national internment operations.

The group also discussed steps that UCCLA needs to take to remove veterans of the KGB from Canada, proposed new fellowships providing support for students and others involved in the arts and legal fields, and began deliberations on hosting an international symposium regarding Winnipeg’s Canadian Museum for Human Rights controversy. Concerns about the lack of inclusiveness in hallowing the memory of all of the victims of Nazism at the Canadian national Holocaust memorial in Ottawa were also raised.

While in Banff, several members of UCCLA participated in a conference, “The Great War, Canada and the Internment of Enemy Aliens, 1914-1920,” sponsored by the Wirth Centre for Austrian and Central European Studies and the Canadian Institute for Ukrainian Studies. Members also visited the new Parks Canada exhibit dealing with the internment operations at the Cave and Basin site, in Banff National Park, ending their conclave by agreeing to hold next year’s meeting in the Maritimes.

UCCLA’s chairman, Roman Zakaluzny, said: “We continue to be a project-driven and all-volunteer group, that has time and again demonstrated an ability to sustain initiatives we believe raise the profile of our community, nationally and internationally. We are looking forward in the next few years to working with several national museums not only to recall the internment operations and War Measures Act, but to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Cpl. Filip Konowal’s valour at the Battle of Hill 70, not only in Canada but in France, the UK, and Ukraine.

“Over the next 12 months in which Canadians will, of course, vote in a federal election, we shall continue to insist that all of the exhibits in the taxpayer-funded Canadian Museum for Human Rights be revised so that they become comparative, thematic, and inclusive. We plan to help stage a major international conference on why that is both appropriate and essential if this national museum is to have genuine pedagogical importance. Finally, we remain committed to ensuring that no veterans of the Soviet secret police remain in this country – the fact that some do, to this day, is a travesty of justice and an affront to the memory of the many millions who fell victim to Communism as well as their descendants, of whom millions live in Canada.”

The Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association (L'Association ukrainienne-canadienne des droits civils) is a non-partisan, voluntary, non-profit research and educational organization committed to the articulation and promotion of the Ukrainian Canadian community's interests and to the defence of the civil liberties and human rights of Ukrainians in Canada and elsewhere.
Station A, P.O. 100, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 8V1

Enemy Aliens Exhibit opens at the Canadian War Museum

Opening the Enemy Aliens exhibit, 2 Oct 2014, Canadian War Museum

Kim Pawliw, internee descendant, cuts the ribbon opening the ‘Enemy Aliens’ exhibit at the Canadian War Museum, 2 October 2014 –

Left to Right: Dr L Luciuk (UCCLA), Mark O’Neill (CEO, Canadian Museum of History), Ambassador of Ukraine Vadym Prystaiko, Kim Pawliw, Rev Dr Petro Galadza, Jim Whitham (CEO, Canadian War Museum) and Dr John Maker CWM).

Photo Credit: Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation

Eparchy of New Westminster recalls the First World War Internment Operations


On Friday 22 August, 2014 at  Holy Eucharist Cathedral Parish in New Westminster, British Columbia the Ukrainian Catholic Community of the Lower Mainland/Vancouver commemorated and recalled Canada’s First National Internment Operation 1914-1920 with a Panakhyda/Memorial Service and blessing of commemorative plaque.  The memorial service was celebrated by Most Rev. Ken Nowakowski, bishop of New Westminster with concelebrants, Fr. Yuriy Vyshnevskyy, of Holy Eucharist Cathedral, Fr. Andrii Chornenkyy, of Holy Cross parish in Surrey, and Fr. Richard Soo sj, of Dormition of the Mother of God parish in Richmond.

Attending and speaking at the commemoration service was Hon. Mark Warawa, Federal Member of Parliament who brought greetings from Hon. Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada, Ms. Lorrie Williams, deputy Mayor of New Westminster, Mirko Petriw, president of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress, Vancouver branch and His Excellency Mir Huculak, Honorary Consul of Ukraine in Vancouver. The ceremony was attended by members of the Ukrainian Catholic Community in the Greater Vancouver area.

Thousands of Ukrainians in the World War I living in Canada who had recently immigrated to Canada and held Austrian passports were arrested and disenfranchised and classified as enemy aliens.  The Canadian Government has recently recognized the great wrong that was committed to these men, women and children.

Photo courtesy Doreen Kostyniuk